China has a huge variety in its geography. Himalayas in the south, Gobi desert to the north, many rivers, valleys, and mountainous regions in the center, with large coastline with to the Pacific Ocean.
It also had quite a line of impressive dynasties some of which were the Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties. After the Han dynasty China was virtually divided in half politically until the Tang Empire reunited it around 618 AD – 907 AD. Meanwhile, an empire called the Mongol Empire founded by Genghis Khan rose and eventually conquered most of Asia, then his grandson Kublai Khan extended it to parts of Europe and virtually all of Asia except India. In order to control the people and hold off a revolt, Genghis left the rule of conquered territories to its local rulers but made them pay tribute to him.
But later on the Mongol Empire became weak and the Ming Empire in China rose around 1450 AD and was replaced 300 years later by the Qing Empire and China was on its way becoming a dominant power in East Asia again.
India can be found south south of China and is sometimes called the Indian subcontinent because it is on a different tectonic plate from the Asian continent. The early civilizations in India were based on the Indus Valley were the Indus River runs. Nearby is the Ganges River which eventually attracted civilizations as well. And although there is some variety, the geography of India is much simpler than that of Africa or China.
India’s history is more or less a history of the decentralization of an Empire then the smaller kingdoms re-grouping under another empire. For example, from 500 AD – 1750 AD the Gupta Empire was decentralized then the smaller kingdoms regrouped under the Rajput kingdom, decentralized again, then regrouped under Mughal Empire which was finally decentralized around 1750 AD which was around the time the British Empire started colonizing parts of India.
And although some Indian rulers focused on expansion, much of the nation’s history is centered on philosophical and religious advancement because their culture dwelt on self-meditation and a search for inner truth. India eventually came under the control of the British Empire pretty quickly while China remained immune for a time.